English shall be both the official and the working language of the ZAMUN Conference.
1.1.1 Addressing the Chairman
It is important to address the Chairman by his/her correct title (Mr/Madam President/Chair). As the Chairman has ‚given‘ you the floor, your first words should be ‚Thank you Mr/Madam Chair for the floor (for giving me the floor, etc.).‘
1.1.2 Addressing other interlocutors
In formal debate you speak of others only in the third person (‚distinguished/fellow/honorable delegate/representative/delegation of country X‘). Your use of the correct forms of address is the most elementary way to show respect for the conference and the other delegates.
A member of the Committee is a representative who is officially registered with the Conference. Each member will be represented by one to four delegates and will have the right to one vote in each Committee. In order to increase their effectiveness, the small delegations should focus on a limited number of objectives and working cooperatively with other delegations. The essential requirements are dignity (because you represent your nation), politeness (to show respect for other delegations as individuals and for the governments, states, nations and causes they represent) and conformity to the customs and rules of the ZAMUN Conference.
1.3 General Powers of the Chairpersons
Please note that Chairpersons are responsible for determining rules that are in order to facilitate debate and discussion. In case of conflict of interpretation, the Chairpersons have the final authority for determining the applicability of the Rules of Procedure. The Chairperson may ask for advice from the Secretary General.
The Chairpersons may declare a Committee open and permit debate to proceed when at least one-third of the members of the Committee is present.
1.5 Rules of Procedure
All delegates taking part in the conference should only refer to this document in terms of any procedural matters. Delegates who are not familiar with the Rules of Procedure under which the conference is operating are at a considerable disadvantage and, conversely, those who are may be able to use them to their advantage. NO DELEGATE should go to an international meeting without having looked over its Rules of Procedure, especially the sections relating to decision-making and procedural motions.
1.6 Dress code
International Business Attire is required from all the participants.
The Board shall be composed of a Chair and an Underchair.
2.2. Competence of the Chairpersons
The competence of the Chairpersons may not be questioned by delegates.
The delegates shall represent United Nations member states. The People’s Republic of China, the French Republic, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are Permanent Members of the Security Council where they can apply the veto power.
4.1 Roll Call
Attendance shall be conducted by the Chairpersons by a Roll Call at the beginning of every session, or if it is asked by a member of the quorum. Delegates shall establish their presence in the Committee by raising their placards and declaring „Present“. The Permanent Members of the Security Council may also declare „Present and Voting“, abolishing in that way their right to abstain in all voting procedures until the next roll call.
The Speaker’s List is opened following a Motion from a delegate and the subsequent approval by the Chair. A Delegation can add its country name to the List only if it is not already on it. The delegate may either raise his/her placard when the Chair calls for Delegates to do so or send a note to the Chair.
Unless otherwise specified, no motions are debatable and all require a simple majority vote to pass.
4.3.1 Majority on Procedural Matters
In accordance with Article 27 of the Charter of the United Nations, all votes on procedural matters require a majority of votes in favour.
4.4.1 Formal Debate
The Committee shall by default be in Formal Debate unless otherwise advised by the Chair. Delegates should refer to the Speakers’List for the speaking order.
4.4.2 Informal Debate
During formal debate a motion can be made by any delegate for a Moderated Caucus or an Unmoderated Caucus both of which constitute informal debate.
A Delegate may only address the Security Council if he/she has received permission from the Chair.
A Speaker may not be interrupted by another Delegate unless the Delegate has risen Point of Personal Privilege or Point of Order.
4.7.1 Speaker’s list
At any time the Chair may call for members that wish to be added to the Speaker’s List. A member may add its name to the Speaker’s List by submitting a note to the Chair. The names of the next several members to speak will always be posted for the convenience of the Committee.
No delegate may address a session without having previously obtained the permission of the Chair.
4.7.3 Relevance of Speech
A Chair may call a Delegate to order if his/her speech is not relevant to the subject matter being discussed.
Only during substantive formal debate a Delegate yields any remaining time at the end of his/her speech in one of the following manners:
4.8.1 To Questions
Delegates wishing to ask questions shall raise their placards and wait to be recognized by the Chair. The Chair shall rule questions that are rhetorical, leading or not relevant to the Speaker’s speech out of order. Only the Speaker’s answer shall be deducted from the remaining speaking time.
4.8.2 To Another Delegate
A Speaker wishing to give the remaining time allotted to his/her speech to another Delegate can do so. A Speaker that has been yielded to cannot yield his or her time again. To turn the floor over to a co-delegate of the same member state is not considered a yield.
4.8.3 To the Chair
If a specific yield has not been established by the Speaker, the floor will automatically be given back to the Chair. During Moderated Caucus the floor will also automatically be given back to the Chair.
4.9.1 Point of Personal Privilege
A Delegate may rise to a Point of Personal Privilege if a matter impairs him/her from participating fully in Committee’s activities. The Chairpersons shall try to effectively address the source of impairment. This point may interrupt a Speaker.
4.9.2 Point of Order
A Delegate may rise to a Point of Order if a rule of procedure is not properly observed by a Delegate or by Chairpersons. The Chair will rule on the validity of the point. A Delegate rising to a Point of Order may not comment on the topic of discussion. A Point of Order may only interrupt a speaker if the speech is not following proper parliamentary procedure.
4.9.3 Point of Parliamentary Inquiry.
A Delegate may rise to a Point of Parliamentary Inquiry requesting an explanation from the Chair on the Rules of Procedure. This point may not interrupt a Speaker.
4.9.4 Right of Reply
A Delegate whose personal or national integrity has been impugned by another Delegate’s comments may rise to a Right of Reply. Disagreement with the content of a Delegate’s speech is not grounds for a Right of Reply. The Chair will recognize the Right of Reply at his/her discretion. Should the Chair rule the Right of Reply out of order, his/her decision cannot be appealed. The Chair might choose to set a time limit for a Right of Reply. No delegate may call for a Right of Reply on a Right of Reply.
4.10.1 Motion to Set Speaking Time
A Delegate may move to set a time limit on speeches. A Delegate exceeding the allotted time for a speech may be called to order by the Chair.
4.10.2 Motion for a Moderated Caucus
A Delegate may move for a Moderated Caucus by suggesting a change from formal debate to moderated informal debate. A Delegate who moves for Moderated Caucus must suggest a time length of the caucus, speaking time and justification for the Motion. The Chair may suggest a more appropriate caucus length or speaking time or may rule the Moderated Caucus out of order without possibility of appeal. If the Motion passes, the Security Council will enter informal debate where the Chair will recognize Delegates who raise their placards to speak about the issue at hand. If no delegate wishes to speak during a moderated caucus, the caucus will immediately end.
4.10.3 Motion to Extend the Moderated Caucus
A Delegate may move to Extend the Moderated Caucus if he/she feels that additional time benefits Committee’s work. The Delegate moving for an Extension of the Moderated Caucus must suggest a length for the extension, which shall not exceed the duration of the original Moderated Caucus. The Chair may suggest a more appropriate caucus length or speaking time and put it to vote or may rule the Motion out of order without possibility of appeal.
4.10.4 Motion for an Unmoderated Caucus
A Delegate may move for an Unmoderated Caucus by suggesting a change from formal to informal debate. The delegate making the motion must briefly explain its purpose and specify the time limit for the caucus, not to exceed twenty minutes. The Chair may rule the Unmoderated Caucus out of order without possibility of appeal. The motion will immediately be put to a vote. A majority of members is required for its approval.
4.10.5 Motion to Extend the Unmoderated Caucus
A Delegate may move to Extend the Unmoderated Caucus if he/she feels that additional time would benefit the work of the Security Council. The delegate making the motion must briefly explain its purpose and specify a time limit for the caucus, not to exceed twenty minutes. The Chair may rule the motion out of order. Once raised, the motion will be voted on immediately, with a majority of members required for its approval.
4.10.6 Motion for a Straw Poll
Simulation of a voting procedure, serves only for informational purposes.
4.10.7 Motion to Close the Debate/the Speaker’s List
A Delegate may move to Close the Debate in order to end the debate on a Resolution whereby the Committee will enter voting procedure on all amendments on the floor. Closure of the debate requires the support of two-thirds of the members present.
4.10.8 Motion for the Suspension of the Meeting
A Delegate may move for the Suspension of the Meeting to suspend all Committee activities until the next scheduled meeting time. The Chair may rule the Motion out of order without possibility of appeal or put it to vote.
4.10.9 Motion for the Adjournment of the Session
A Delegate may move for the Adjournment of the Session to suspend all Committee activities for the duration of the conference. The Chair may rule the Motion out of order without possibility of appeal or put it to an immediate vote.
4.10.10 Order of Priority of Motions
1. Adjourning the Meeting 2. Suspending the Meeting 3. Closing Debate 4. Adjourning Debate 5. Resuming Debate 6. Introducing Draft Resolutions 7. Introducing Amendments 8. Introducing a Friendly Amendment 9. Introducing Working Papers 10. Unmoderated Caucus 11. Moderated Caucus
4.11 Resolutions and Amendments
4.11.1 Working Paper
A Working Paper is an informal document used by Delegates to work on building a Draft Resolution. A Working Paper will be distributed at the Chair’s discretion if requested by a Delegate.
22.214.171.124 Draft Resolutions
A Working Paper submitted to the Chair under proper Resolution format will be referred to as a Draft Resolution. If Draft Resolutions are complementary or fairly identical, the Chair may recommend that the Sponsors of the Draft Resolutions combine the documents prior to the end of the debate. If two or more draft resolutions are on the floor, the committee shall vote on the resolutions in the order in which they have been submitted.
126.96.36.199 Resolution denomination
A Draft Resolution that has been put to a vote by the Committee and passes may be referred to as a „Resolution“.
Draft Resolutions must be properly formatted according to the guidelines found in the „Resolution Writing“ section.
Sponsor is recognized as the main writer of the Draft Resolution. The Sponsor must be present for a Working Paper to be introduced to the floor as a Draft Resolution. The Sponsor must agree to support a Resolution.
Signatories are recognized as the supporters of the Draft Resolution. The required number of Signatories will be set by the Chair. The respective number of Signatories must be present on a Working Paper to be introduced to the floor as a Draft Resolution. Signatories are not required to support the Draft Resolution during the voting procedure; they only agree to put their names as those who are interested in seeing the Working Paper nominated as a Draft Resolution for further debate.
188.8.131.52 Introduction of a Draft Resolution
A Delegate may move to introduce a Draft Resolution. Once the Working Paper has been assigned a Draft Resolution, the Chair shall invite the Sponsor of the Resolution to read out only the operative clauses of the Draft Resolution to the Committee. The Sponsor will then be recognized for five minutes to speak in favour of the Draft Resolution. During this phase of the procedure there are no questions accepted. A new debate upon this Draft Resolution shall begin and a new Speaker’s List shall be established.
184.108.40.206 Panel of Authors
After a Draft Resolution has been introduced, any of its Sponsors may call for a Panel of Authors to be convened for the purpose of answering questions raised by the Committee relating to the Draft Resolution. If passed, the Chair shall set a time limit of no more than twenty minutes during which members of the Committee may ask short questions to the Sponsors for the purpose of clarifying the content or meaning of the Resolution. Delegates should note that the Panel of Authors is not meant for the debate of principles, but is instead a forum for strict clarification of the details of a Draft Resolution.
During Debate on a Draft Resolution a Delegate may move to introduce an Amendment which will add to, strike out from or revise a part of the Draft Resolution. The Amendment has to be first approved by the Chair. It is in the discretion of the Chair to define the period of time during which the floor will be open to amendments.
220.127.116.11 Amendments to Preambulatory Clauses
Amendments to Preambulatory Clauses are not in order.
18.104.22.168 Non-Substantive Amendments
Amendments correcting grammatical, spelling or formatting mistakes on Draft Resolutions will be automatically adopted without vote from the Committee, at the discretion of the Chair. Following the initial reading of the Draft Resolution by its sponsor, delegates are permitted to point out any such problems to the Chairpersons.
22.214.171.124 Friendly Amendments
Substantive Amendments approved by the Sponsors will automatically be integrated to the Draft Resolution without vote from the Committee.
126.96.36.199 Unfriendly Amendments
Substantive Amendments to a Draft Resolution not approved by the Sponsors of a Draft Resolution are considered unfriendly and require approval from the Chair to be introduced. Unfriendly Amendments will be put to a vote prior to the vote on the Draft Resolution as a whole.
4.12 Voting Procedure
When the Chair announces that the Committee is entering voting procedure, the Motion for Roll Call Voting is in order. Each Delegate of the Committee has one vote and must demonstrate his/her voting intentions by raising his/her placard at the Chair’s request unless there is a Roll Call vote. Delegates may vote YES, NO, ABSTAIN or they may PASS. No Delegate shall vote on behalf of another Delegate.
4.12.1 Roll Call
Vote Roll Call Motions may only be in order for substantive matters. This Motion is automatically accepted unless the Chair rules it out of order; the decision is not subject to appeal.
During Roll Call, a Delegate may choose to pass. The Chair will place the Delegate at the bottom of the voting list. A Delegate who has passed cannot ABSTAIN from voting.
The United Nations Website http://www.un.org/
The UN General Assembly http://www.un.org/en/ga/
The UN Security Council http://www.un.org/en/sc/
The UN Office on Drugs and Crime https://www.unodc.org/
The UN Human Rights Council http://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/hrc/pages/hrcindex.aspx
The Disarmament and International Security Committee http://www.un.org/en/ga/first/
Other Important Non-UN Actors African Union http://www.africa-union.org/
Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org/
Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) http://www.apecsec.org.sg/apec.html
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) http://www.aseansec.org/home.htm
East African Community http://www.eac.int/
European union http://europa.eu.int/
Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org/
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent http://www.ifrc.org/
International Monetary Fund http://www.imf.org/
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) http://www.nato.int/
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development http://www.oecd.org/home/
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute http://www.sipri.org/
World Bank http://www.worldbank.org/
World Trade Organization http://www.wto.org/
The title should be centered, in capital letters, above the main body of the draft resolution. The title can be as simple as „DRAFT RESOLUTION“. On the left margin and two lines below the title should be the Committee and topic name.
The draft resolution is written in the format of a long sentence, with the following rules:
• Preambulatory Clauses describe the problem being addressed, recall past actions taken, explain the purpose of the draft resolution and offer support for the operative clauses that follow. Each clause in the preamble begins with an underlined word and ends with a comma.
• Operative Clauses are numbered and state the action to be taken by the body. These clauses are all with the present tense active verbs and are generally stronger words than those used in the Preamble. Each operative clause is followed by a semicolon except the last, which ends with a period.
SAMPLE PREAMBULATORY CLAUSES
Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Bearing in mind Believing Cognizant of Confident Contemplating Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned Deeply conscious Deeply convinced Deeply disturbed Deeply regretting Desiring Emphasizing Expecting Expressing its appreciation Expressing its satisfaction Fulfilling Fully alarmed Fully aware Fully believing Further developing Further recalling Guided by Having adopted Having considered Having considered further Having devoted attention Having examined Having heard Having received Having studied Keeping in mind Noting further Noting with approval Noting with deep concern Noting with regret Noting with satisfaction Observing Reaffirming Realizing Recalling Recognizing Referring Seeking Taking into account Taking note
SAMPLE OPERATIVE CLAUSES
Accepts Adopts Affirms Appeals Appreciates Approves Authorizes Calls upon Commends Concurs Condemns Confirms Congratulates Considers Decides Declares Deplores Designates Directs Emphasises Encourages Further invites Further reminds Further recommends Further requests Instructs Reaffirms Recognizes Recommends Renews its appeal Repeats Suggests Supports Takes note of Transmits Urges Welcomes